Measurements of normal range blood sugar levels are taken when three different chemical processes occur within the body to determine whether a prediabetic or diabetic condition exists:
- Blood sugar levels taken after eight hours of not eating, referred to as a fasting blood sugar test.
- Blood glucose test taken two hours after eating, called a postprandial blood sugar measurement.
- Random blood sugar count taken at any time of the day.
What Is Normal Blood Sugar?
Individuals with a healthy blood sugar level who do not exhibit wide discrepancies between fasting blood sugar range and non-fasting blood glucose, or blood sugar spikes after eating a meal, generally do not have diabetes. A general value table containing normal range blood sugar levels looks something like this:
- Average blood sugar level for fasting blood glucose is 70 to 99 milligrams per deciliter.
- Normal blood sugar ranges for postprandial test done two hours after eating is 70 to 145 mg/dL.
- Average blood sugar level for random testing is 70 to 125 mg/dL.
Different laboratories may use slightly different numerical values but usually remain close to these standard measurements. However, an abnormal blood glucose level does not automatically mean a person has diabetes. A variety of medical conditions can cause blood chemistry to mimic diabetic blood qualities, such as:
- Alcohol and blood sugar
- Marijuana and blood sugar
- Elevated blood sugar levels due to pharmaceuticals
Even stress and high blood sugar are correlated because of elevated cortisol levels during times of prolonged stress. According to a 2009 article in the American Journal of Medicine, “high cortisol has been shown to contribute to insulin resistance and is likely involved in the development of Type II diabetes, as well as the persistence of high glucose levels.”
As the predominant hormone involved in the “flight or fight” response, cortisol also regulates immune system functioning, metabolism and blood pressure, all conditions additionally affected by diabetes. The article also states that some doctors consider cortisol dysregulation to be a major factor in the development of diabetes.
Reducing blood sugar levels when elevated blood sugar levels are discovered after lab testing is critical to preventing serious diabetic complications, including:
- Diabetic ketoacidosis – This condition occurs when someone has not been able to utilize glucose for energy purposes and instead is now relying on the breakdown of fat cells. This releases molecules called ketones, which rapidly increases acid levels in the blood, an event potentially inducing diabetic coma.
- Diabetic Hyperosmolar Syndrome – An individual whose normal range blood sugar levels rise past 600 mg/dL will begin frequently urinating in order to eliminate excess glucose, causing possible severe dehydration, coma and possibly death.
- Diabetic Retinopathy – Prolonged elevated glucose levels will damage retinal blood vessels, within the eyes. Adequate blood supplies cannot reach the eyes when the vessels are weakened, which could cause partial or total blindness if not treated immediately.
- Diabetic Neuropathy – Nerve damage may result if normal range blood sugar levels are not maintained, resulting in permanent numbness to affected extremities.
Many overweight and obese people suffer from metabolic syndrome, a genetic disorder involving the inability of fat cells to effectively signal the brain. This prevents the brain from telling the body to eat less, which causes a person affected by metabolic syndrome to continue eating even when they are full. As a result, health issues arise due to excess weight and overeating, such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure and Type II diabetes.
See the video below and know about the Measurements of normal range blood sugar levels are taken when three different chemical processes.
Instead of medication, doctors recommend individuals diagnosed with metabolic syndrome lower blood sugar naturally by consuming a healthy, controlled diet of fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grains. Usually, once this diet is implemented, along with regular physical activity, normal range blood sugar levels are achieved and the high levels of blood glucose are eliminated.